1.WHO       :   İnsanlarla ilgili isimlerden sonra bağlaç olarak özne yerine kullanılır.The woman is a teacher. She is teaching English.The woman who is teaching English is a teacher.


 2. WHİCH   :  Cansız varlıkları belirten isimlerden sonra  bağlaç olarak özne veya nesne yerine kullanılır.The film is terrific. It is on for two months.The film which is on for two months is terrific.


 3.THAT       : Tanımlayıcı sıfat cümleciklerinde canlı ve cansızları tanımlayan isimlerden sonra bağlaçolarak “who, whom ve which” yerine kullanılır.I have got a car that (which) is magnificient.

Do you know the girl that (who) I was talking to?

 4.WHOSE   : İyelik gösterir.I met a girl. Her uncle lives next to us.I met a girl whose uncle lives next to us.


 5.WHERE   : Sıfat cümleciklerinde bağlaç olarak bir yeri nitelemek amacıyla kullanılır.The city was wonderful. I lived four years there.The city where I lived four years was wonderful.


 6.WHEN     : Sıfat cümleciklerinde bağlaç olarak zaman belirten bir ismi nitelemek için kullanılır.Saturday is they day.  She will come then.Saturday is the day when she will come.


7.WHOEVER: (kim olursa olsun)WHATEVER: (ne olursa olsun)                        Bağlaç olarak kullanılırlarWHİCHEVER: (hangisi olursa olsun)

WHENEVER: (ne zaman olursa olsun)

WHEREVER: (nerede olursa olsun)

Whoever comes, tell him I’ll see him later.

You can buy whatever you want.

We can go and see whichever film you want.

You can visit me whenever you want.

It won’t do any good whatever you do.



If Cümleleri | Wish Cümleleri

If Cümleleri | Wish Cümleleri






are happyPresent Tense will liveFuture Tense TYPE 1


are happily marriedPresent Tense (will) liveFuture Tense/Present Tense TYPE 1


but for = if it weren’t for= if it hadn’t been forPast Perfect should/would have dieModal Perfect TYPE 3


don’t smokePresent Tense will feelFuture Tense TYPE 1


DrinkPresent Tense will beFuture Tense TYPE 1


could livecould + V1 would you dowould + V1 TYPE 2


had hadPast Perfect Tense would have eatenModal Perfect TYPE 3


could change/could have changedcould + V1/Modal Perfect would you changewould you have changed TYPE 2/TYPE 3


had knownPast Perfect Tense would have looked afterModal Perfect TYPE 3










The simple presentThe simple presentThe present progressiveThe present perfect

The present perfect progressive

Have to


Can                         + V1


S. Presentwillmaymight                                + V1



ought to

If you heat ice it melts.If she works hard she will manageIf seh is working hard she can manageIf  she has worked hard she should manage

If she has been working hard she might manage

If she can work hard she ought to manage













The simple pastThe past progressiveCould

Had to              + V1

couldwouldmight                        + V1


If she worked hard she would manageIf she was working hard she might manageIf she could work hard she could manageIf she had to work hard she should manage.


  • Dilek kipi olarak (subjunctive) bütün şahıslarla birlikte were kullanılır.

If I were you I would act in a different way.

If she were here we would say the truth.

  • Will ya da would “if clause” da gelecek anlamında kullanılmaz. Ancak kullanılırsa şartlı cümleciğin anlamı değişir.

If you would decide to study, you could be successful à If you don’t mind studying

If you will have another check. I(ll want everyone help you à If you don’ mind checking again.










The Past PerfectThe Past Perfect ProgressiveHad + been + V2 (Passive) wouldshould                   + have + V2couldmight If she had worked hand she would have managed.If she had been working hard she could have managed.If she had been told to work hard she might have managed.







Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Type 3

Type 3

Type 2

If ı am as tall as you/would have been  a basketballer now.If I were as tall as you I would have been a basketballer.If I had been as  tall as you I would be a  basketballer now.



Type 1

If you have a problem, please let me know.Should you have a problem, please let me know.

Type 2

If she were not here I wouldn’t be here too.Were she not here I wouldn’t be here too.If workers went on a strike ıt would not be nice.Were workers to go on a s trike it would not be nice.

Type 3

If the nuclear wastes hadn’t been buried under earth there wouldn’t have been any problems.Had  the nuclear wastes not been buried under earth there wouldn’t have been any problems.Were the nuclear wastes not to have been buried under earth there wouldn’t have been any problems.











  1. 1.      Only if                                                                                                               : koşuluyla

Only if they have the necessary amount of Money will they buy the car.

  1. 2.      If only                                                                                                                : keşke

If only there weren’t so many problems in the world we  would be much more happier.

  1. 3.      Unless                                                                                                                : — medikçe

Unless you manufacture high-wuality goods you cannot sell them.

  1. 4.      What if                                                                                                               : — ya — ise

What if the Wheel hadn’t been invented?

  1. 5.      But for = if it weren’t for = if it hadn’t been for                                        : olmasaydı

But for terrorism, the world would have been much more peaceful.

  1. 6.      Suppose/imagine                                                                                             : varsayalım ki

Suppose there were not poverty in the world.

Imagine that we had been to moon. We would be all  happy now.

  1. 7.      As if, as though                                                                                                  : — mış gibi/sanki

Our teacher always  tries to explain every detail as t hough/as if it were the solution to understand everything.

  1. 8.      İn case                                                                                                                 : durumunda/eğer


You must obey the traffic laws in case you may have an accident.

  1. 9.      Provided/provided that/providing that                                                       : koşuluyla şayet

You can have a holiday provided (that) providing (that) you finish your work in time.

  1. 10.   on condition that                                                                                               : eğer olursa, şayet

On condition that we get the Money in time everything will be finished next year.

  1. 11.   lest                                                                                                                         : olmasın diye, belki

The police stayed there all night lest robbers should come.






                                                       WISH CLAUSES             





Wish Clause

PRESENT She isn’ a studious student.He doesn’t want to join us. I wish she were a studious student.I wish he joined us.
FUTURE He won’t give the many.I can’t finish the report. I wish he would give the Money.I wish I could finish it early.
PAST The apartment wasn’t decorated properly.I didn’t have any Money. I wish it had been decorated properly.I wish I couldhave had enough Money.


  1. Future&Present time   be yerine were kullanılır.

I wish she were with us.

  1. Will à would

Can à could, were able to

Could à could have been able to/had been able to.

She won’t stop acting in that way ,  I wish she would stop acting in  that way.

They can’t lend you the Money  , I wish they could lend you then you the Money

I couldn’t answer the questions  ,  ı wish I could have answered the questions.

I wish I had been able to answer the questions.


  • Birinci tekil ve birinci çoğul şahıslarla birlikte “ could” kullanınız. , I wish I could go


  1. Wish clause (kısa şekli)

I can’t play football                               I wish I could play football à I wish I could

  1. I wish I were there                                şu anki isteğim

Yesterday I wished I were there         dünkü isteğim


Modals | Kipler

Modals | Kipler









can + V1
  • Yetenek gösterir
  • İzin ve ricalarda kullanılır.
I can play billiards.Can we leave early?
can’t + have + V3
  • Geçmişle ilgili olumsuz  tahmin
He can’t have been serious.
could + V1
  • Ricalarda
  • Dolaylı anlatımlarda
  • II. Tip koşul cümlelerinde
  • Geçmişteki yeterliği

belirtmek için

  • Gelecekteki olasılık
Could ı park my car here?She said she could finish it.If ı were you I could act defferently.He could dive  when he was young.


It could rain in a few minutes.

could + have V3
  • Geçmişle ilgili tahminlerde
He could have left (He wasn’t at home)She couldn’t have been there (She was at school)
may + V1
  • İzinlerde
  • Olasılık belirtirken
May I have a day off?He may be here tomorrow.
might + V1
  • Olasılık belirtirken

(“may”e göre daha zayıf)

  • Dolaylı anlatımda may à might
They might be here tomorrow.She said she might leave early.
may + have + V3might + have + V3
  • Geçmişle ilgili olasılıklarda
He missed the exam.  He may/might have forgotten it.



must +V1
  • Konuşanın ortaya koyduğu zorunluluğu ifade eder
  • Gereklilik gösterir
I must stop gambling.It is hot inside. You must start the air conditioner.
mustn’t + V1
  • Yasak belirtmek için
You mustn’t smoke in the hospital
must + have + V3
  • Geçmişle ilgili fikir yürütme
He doesn’t look well. He must have been ill.
have (got) to + V1
  • Dışarıdan gelen zorunluluğu ifade eder
I have to finish this assignment. (The manager told me)
needn’t + V1
  • Herhangi bir gerekliğin olmadığını gösterir.
They needn’t buy a new car.(They have already had one).
should + V1ought to + V1
  • Tavsiye için kullanılır.
  • Gereklilik gösterir.


He is lazy. He ought to study more.We should leave early in the morning.
should + have + V3ought to+ have + V3
  • Geçmişte yapılması gerekip de yapılmayan işleri ifade etmek için kullanılır.
They should have finished  the work.(Why didn’t they finish it?)He ought to have been here.
will + V1
  • Emir, teklif ve ricalarda
Will you open the Windows?You will go there.
would + V1
  • İstek belirtmek için
  • Dolaylı anlatımda will à would
  • 2 tip koşul cümlelerinde
I would like some more tea, please.She said she would be there soon.If I were you I would act in a different way.
would + have + V3
  • Geçmişle ilgili niyeti belirtmek için.
She would have come but she broke her leg.
shall + V1
  • Karşıya bir teklif iletirken
Shall I solve the problem for you?
used to + V1
  • Geçmişte yapılan ama artık devam edilmeyen olayları ifade ederken.
I used to smoke when I was young.
be used to + Ving
  • Yapmaya alışkın olduğumuz olayları ifade ederken.
I am used to playing tenis at weekends.
get used to + Ving
  • Alışmaya başladığımız olayları ifade ederken
I get used to playing cards.
had better + V1
  • Karşıya tavsiyede bulunurken
You had better wake up early.
would rather
  • Tercih belirtmek için
I would rather study than go to movies.
  • Would rather + subject pronoun + V2
I would rather she left.
be supposed to + V1
  • Olması olası işlerden söz



  • Genel inanırları belirtirken
They were supposed to graduate this month (but they couldn’t)He is supposed to be a good footballer.
dare + V1
  • Cesaret gösterme durumunu anlatırken
He daren’t smoke in the home.He dares to  speak with me like that.
be + to + V1
  • Görev belirtmek için
  • Geleceğe ait planı belirtirken
He is  to finish the Project.They are to complete the building.
be + able + to + V1
  • Yeterlilik belirtmek için = can/could

(Bütün zamanlarda kullanılabilir.)

He is able to do 100 pushups.




Noun Clauses | İsim Cümlecikleri

Noun Clauses



Mary     has just learnt     that     she is dismissed

Özne           yüklem          bağlaç        nesne

(isim)                                                   (isim öbeği)


Yukarıda verilen örnek cümleyi öğelerine ayırdığımızda “özne” ve “nesne” yerine isim/isim öbeği kullanıldığını görürüz. Bu cümlede kullanılan “isim öbeği” (she is dismissed) aslında tüm öğeleriyle birlikte bir cümledir. “that” bağlacı ise bu yapının bir isim cümleciği olduğunu gösterir.



  1. That + isim cümleciği
    1. Cümlenin öznesi konumunda olabilir.

That he got the prize is now known.

  1. Cümlenin nesnesi konumunda olabilir.

Everybody knows that Fenerbahçe is the best of all.

  1. İsim/isim öbeği + eylem (be) + isim öbeği

The truth is that you ignored all the important points.

  1. “It” ile birlikte kullanılır.

It is not that we didn’t like your Project.


  1. Soru kelimesi +isim cümleciği

(Wh – Question word)

“Where do you work?” She asked.

She asked where I worked   (Soru sözcüğü olduğu yerde kalır ve cümlenin geri kalan kısmı düz   cümle haline dönüştürülür.)

Where she works is a mystery



  1. İf / whether (or not) +isim cümleciği

“Is he finished?” The manager asked.

The manager asked if (whether or not) he was finished.



İngilizce Zamanlar | İngilizce zaman Uyumları

İngilizce Zamanlar | İngilizce zaman Uyumları




The Simple Present

*every ….. (every hour/every day/…etc.)*nowadays*always/frequently,/often/usually/sometimes/seldom/rarely/never/ever




The Present Progressive

*now*these days*at present*at the moment

*fort he time being


*Look/Listen!/Watch out!.. gibi ifadelerden sonra

The Simple Past

*yesterday*last ….. (last month/last year/ ….. etc.*….. ago (two days ago/five years ago/ ….. etc. 







The Present Perfect







*so far

*up till now

*these days

*this is the first time

*this ….. (this month/this year/ ….. etc.)




The Simple Future

*tomorrow*next ….. (next week/next month/ ….. etc. )*….. later ( three months later/four years later/….. etc.)


*before long




The Future Progressive

*this time ….. (tomorrow/next year/next month….. etc. )*all day long next week 



The Future Perfect


*by ….. (by the end of this year /by 24th/by the time he comes/ ….. etc.*in ….. time (in ten years’ time)


The Simple Present/The Simple Present


I read the paper after I eat my diner.

Wenever w edecide to work he leaves.

She Has a shower before she goes  to bed.

Once he begins he never gives up.

Every time I g oto Antalya it rains.

The Simple Future/The Simple Present

The Present Perfect


We will wait until he comes.

I’ll call you after I’ve finished the work.

Once you have been to a football match. You’ll never watch it on T.V.

As soon as I learn the results. I’ll inform you.

They will pay the rest when we finish.

The Simple Past/The Simple Past


I went to bet after I finished the work.

The telephone rang as soon as I got home

The manager decided to resign when he wasn’t promoted.

We saw  the soldiers as they marched.

The Simple Past/The Past Progressive

We saw her white she was entering the market.

He was studying English when we left.

It began to rain just as she was watering the garden.

The Past Progressive/The Past Progressive

White I was having an interview my friends were waiting for me.


The Present Perfect/The Simple Past

                         The Present Perfect Progressive


She hasn’t written to me since she left İstanbul.

I have been working since I graduated from school.


The Past Perfect/The Simple Past



I had never seen such a nice place until I came to California

She had just left when you came.

The play had already began by the time we got there.

We had no sooner arived than it began to r ain.

After she had worked for twenty years, she decided to retire.

He had finished his military service, before he started to work.

The Past Perfect Continuous/The Simple Past


She had been playing tenis for five years when she started swimming.

They had been livin in İstanbul for fifteen years until they moved to İzmir.


 Future Perfect / Future Perfect Continious


He will have retired by the time he begins his Grand tour to far east and U.S.

We will have been working on the Project for two years by the time you join us.


Gerunds | Infinitives

Gerunds | Infinitives




admit confess escape it’s no good picture recall risk
acknowledge can’t help enjoy it’s no use postpone recommend resume
avoid can’t bear finish it is worth practise relate scorn
advise can’t  stand fear keep protest regret stop
anticipate debate hate love permit remember suggest
appreciate discuss imagine mention plan resist save
allow dislike include mind prefer report try
consider detest intend miss quit resent welcome
He enjoys swimming.I hate smoking indoors.She likes playing volleyball.I regret cheating.We can’t help laughing at him.

It’s no use lying.

The Manager suggested working part time.


2. Aşağıda iki ya da üç kelimeden oluşan eylemlerden (kendinden sonra preposition (edat) alan eylemlerden) sonra “Gerund” (V+ing) kullanılır.


be accustomed to be sorry for get used to object to
be accused of be used to give up persist in
be charged with confess to have difficulty in put off
be fined for count on insist on rely on
be fond of don’t car efor keep on think about
be good of feel like look forward to think of


I get used to smoking

We are looking forward to her coming.

She is charged with taking care of the baby.

I have a serious difficulty in reading.

He keeps on lying though he has been warned.

I object to staying here.


1. Aşağıdaki eylemlerden sonra “Gerund” (V+ing) kullanılır,

3.Aşağıdaki sıfat+edat (adjective+preposition) yapılarından sonra “Gerund” (V+ing) kullanılır.

accustomed to intent on
afraid of interested in
capable of successful in
fond of tired of


I am accustomed to working very long hours.

She is interested in watching movies.

He is capable of solving difficult problem.

I am tired of listening to that kind of music.

4. Aşağıdaki isim+edat (noun+preposition) yapılarından sonra “Gerund” (V+ing) kullanılır.

choice of method of/for
excuse for possibility of
intention of reason for


I have no intention of going there.

Do you have an excuse for being late?

There isn’t a reason for driving fast.


1.Aşağıdaki eylemlerden sonra “infinitive” (to + V1) kullanılır.

afford concern happen neglect seem
agree decide hesitate offer struggle
aim demand hope plan swear
appear deserve intend prepare theraten
arrange desire learn pretend try
ask determine like promise undertake
attempt decline long prove volunteer
beg expect manage refuse wait
choose fail mean refuse wait
claim forget need remember wish


She decided to resign.

I forgot to bring the report.

It is imbossible to deceive her.

She promised to write me.

We need to rest for a long time.

It is very difficult to communicate.

You deserved to get the prize.


2. Aşağıdaki eylemlerden sonra, önce isim ya da zamir ardından da “infinitive” (to+V1) kullanılır.

advise dare hire motivate rewuire
allow direct instruct oblige teach
ask drive invite order tell
beg encourage inspire pay tempt
cause enable lead permit train
challenge forbid like persuade urge
command force love provoke want
compel get need push warm
convince help notify remind wish



They wanted us to be quiet.

The secretary doesn’t allow anyone to go in.

The teacher advised us to study much more than usual.

She encouraged us to go on.

We expected him to become the manager.

I persuaded  her to work with us.



3.Aşağıdaki sıfatlar kendilerinden sonra “infinitive” (to+V1) alırlar.


anxious dangerous easy pleased strange
boring difficult good prepared surprised
common eager hard ready usual


We are eager to play football.

İt is easy to talk.

She is ready to get the championship.

He is pleased to be with us.


4.Aşağıdaki eylemler “infinitive” alırlar. Fakat “to” kullanılmayacak – infinitive + to + V1






Let him do it himself.

I had him paint  my house.

*Bazı eylemlerin ardından hem “Gerund” (V+ing) hem de “infinitive” (to+V1) gelir.

attempt dislike like propose regret
begin forget love prefer require
continiue hate neglect permit start
can’t stand intend plan remember try


*** Bu eylemlerden “Forget”, “Like”, “Remember” ve “Try”ın anlamları kendilerinden sonra “gerund” ya da “infinitive” almalarına bağlı olarak değişir.


I never forget visiting my grandparents (Büyükanne ve büyükbabamı ziyaret ettiğimi asla unutmam)

I never forget to visit my grandparents (Büyükanne ve büyükbabamı ziyaret etmeyi asla unutmam)


A.Active Infinitives :

                1. Present Infinitive:

                It is  known that he plays football.

He is known to play football.

It was known that he played football.

He was known to play football.

2.Present Progressive Infinitive:

It appears that he is earning a lot.

He appears to be earning a lot.

It seemed that she was crying.

She seemed to be crying.

3.Perfect Infinitive:

Itt is known that the car has cost 50 billion TL.

The car is known to have cost 50 billion TL.

It was expected that  she had finished.

She was expected to have finished.

4.Perfect Progressive Infinitive:

It is estimated that  she has been earning $ 50.000 a year.

She is estimated to have been earning $ 50.000 a year.

It was reported that he had been resigned.

He was reported to have beer resigned.






B. Passive Infinitives:

                1.Present İnfinitive:

It is that seh is promoted manager.

She is said to be promoted manager.

Mary thinks that she will be dismissed

Mary thinks to be dismissed.

2.Perfect Infinitive:

It is estimated that he was sent to US.

He is expected to have been sent to US.

He knows that he has been fired.

He knows to have been fired.

Everyone believed that  she had been awarded.

Everyone believed her to have been awarded.


1.Present Participles V-ing à doing

2.Past Participles  V3 –> done

3.Perfect Participles  having V having done

1.Present Participles:

a.Bazı zamanların oluşumunda kullanılırlar:

She is playing in the garden.

It is being constructed.

b.Sıfat cümlelerinin kısaltılmış biçimi olabilirler:

The girl who is coming is our cousin.

The girl coming is my cousin.




c.Duyu eylemlerinin nesnelerinden sonra kullanılırlar:

We heard the crowd protesting the president.

Police saw the gang robbing the bank.

Keep/leave/find/send/catch eylemlerinin nesnelerinden sonra da kullanılır.

d.Zarf cümleciklerinin kısaltılmış biçimi olabilirler.

After we had finished fixing the car, we left for İzmir.

Having finished fixing the car, we left for İzmir.

2.Past Participles:

a.Bazı zamanların ve yapıların oluşumunda kullanılırlar:

I have written the letter.

The new bridge is going to be finished soon.

b.Sıfat cümlelerinin kısaltılmış biçimi olabilirler:

The players who were selected by the coach were all very skilful.

The players selected by the coach were all very skilful.

c.Zarf cümleciklerinin kısaltılmış  biçimi olabilirler:

Because she was dismissed by the boss, she felt embarrassed.

Dismissed by the boss, she felt embarrassed.

d.have/get/make gibi eylemlerin nesnelerinden sonra da kullanılırlar.

I had the car fixed.

We got the house sold.

3.Perfect Participles:

a.Sıfat cümlelerinin kısaltılmış biçimi olabilirler:

Because the police had been warned about the bandits, they surrounded the  building.

Having been warned about the bandits, they surrounded the building.











İngilizce’de var olan zamanlar ve  bunların yapılarına ilişkin açıklamalar aşağıdaki örneklerde belirtilmiştir.

Simple Present- Geniş Zaman

A : What do you  do every weekend?

B :    go     to     movies

S  +  V +  O

Simple Past -Geçmiş Zaman

A : What did you do yesterday evening?

B : I     went     to a restaurant.

S +   V2   +    O

Present Progressive-Present Contıinious – Şimdiki Zaman 

A : What are you doing right now?

B : I     am     having     breakfast.

S + to be + Ving  +  O

Past Progressive-Past Continious -Geçmişin Hikayesi

A : What are you doing on Saturday last week?

B :    was     sun bathing.

S + to be2 + V ing

Past Perfect – Geçmiş Öncesi

A : What had you done before you left ?

B : I   had   finished   all of the reportst before I left.

S +  had +   V3   +   O

Past Perfect Progressive- Past Perfect Continious – Geçmiş Öncesi Süreklilik

A : For how many hours had you been driving when the police stopped you ?

B : I   had  been  driving  for five hours

S + had + been +  Ving    +  O


Present Perfect Tense – Geçmişten başlayıp günümüze kadar süren  

A : Have you been to Grand Bazaar since you setled in İstanbul?

B : Yes,  have     been   there two times.

S + have/has +  V3   +  O

Present Perfect Progressive -Present Perfect Continious  

A : What have  you been doing fort he last two hours?

B : I     have          been     studying     English.

S + have/has + been + Ving   +  O

Simple Future -Gelecek zam

A : What will you do if he doesn’t come to pick you up?

B :    will     take     a taxi.

S + will +  be  +  O

Future Progressive -Gelecekteki Süreklilik  

A : What will you be doing at this time next week ?

B : will   be   flying   to Bodrum.

S + will +  be  +  Ving   +   O

Future Perfect- Gelecekte tamamlanmış olaylar

A : What will you have  done by  the time you graduate from university?

B :    will     have     started     to work in a computer company.

S + will  +  have + V3  +  O

Future Perfect Progressive-Gelecekteki süreklilik 

 A : How long have you been working fort his bank?

B :  will  have   been  working     for fifteen years by 25th of this month.

S + will +    have+been  + Ving   + O




Bir cümlede özne ile yüklem arasında mutlak bir uyuşma olması gerekir. Özne çoğul özellik taşıyorsa yüklem çoğul, tekil özellik taşıyorsa yüklem tekil olur. Eğer özne öbek biçiminde ise özne içinde “temel ismi” aramamız gerekir. Bu da genelde özne öbeğindeki ilk isimdir.

The people living in this city are all happy.

Çoğul isim = Çoğul yüklem

1. either / each /neither daima tekil olarak değerlendirilir.
Each book costs TL 5.  (ınformal – each book cost TL 5.)
Neither day is possible , Neither of the days is ….. (informal – neither of the days are…..)
Either day is convenient,  Either of the days is ….. (ınformal – Either of the days are …..)

2. either ….. or/neither ….. nor/not only ….. but also özne öbeğinde bulunursa yüklem kendisine en yakın olan isim ile uyum sağlar.
Eğither the teacher or the student comes with us./ Either the student or the teachers come with us.
Neither I nor they accept the proposal. / Neither they nor she accepts the proposal.
Not only the baby but also his parents are ill. / Not only the parents but also their baby is ill.

3. None+of+the+çoğul isim+tekil yüklem
None of the students is present today.

4. None+of+the+sayılamayan isim+tekil yüklem
None of the Money was found
All+of+the+sayılamayan isim+tekil yüklem
All of the cake was eaten
All+of+the+sayılabilen çoğul isim+çoğul yüklem
All of the boks on the shelves.
5. Body/….. one/ ….. thing her zaman tekil olarak düşünülmelidir.
Nobody expects him to finish earlier.
Someone wants to see you
Nothing has happened.
6. Committee, class, team, crowd, army, government, family, group, jury, club gibi topluluk isimleri bir bütün olarak düşünüldüğünde tekil yüklem, topluluk elemanları tek tek düşünüldüğünde çoğul yüklem alır.
Our class is having a picnic tomorrow.
The committee share different opinions on that subject.
7. Pliers, pants, glasses, scissors, shorts, jeans, binoculars isimleri her zaman çoğul yüklem gerektirir.
The pliers are inside the drawer.
• Bu isimleri a pair of ile birlikte kullanırsak tekil yüklem gerekir.
There is a pair of scissors on the table.
8. A number of = many  çoğul yüklem gerektirir.
A number of teachers are going to resign this year.
The number of = toplam sayı  tekil yüklem gerektirir.
The number of the teachers in this school is 45.
9. Para, zaman ve yer ifadeleri özne görevi gördüklerinde taşıdıkları anlama göre tekil ya da çoğul yüklem alırlar.
Five minutes was all I need.
Five hundred million liras were divided between the competitors.
10. There is ….. / There are ….. biçiminde başlayan cümlelerde asıl özne “be”den sonra gelen isim ya da isim öbeğidir.
There have been a lot of problems.
There has been an incredible decrease in the rate of inflation.
11. İngilizce’de bazı isimler sayılamayan özellik taşırlar ancak diğer dillerde bu isimlerin sayılabilir özellik taşıdıklarını gözleyebiliriz.
News, advice, baggage, luggage, knowledge, homework, furniture, information, hair machinery, Money, research, progress, traffic bu isimlerden bazılarıdır.
Here is the news.
The homework was very difficult.
Bu isimleri “piece of” ifadesi kullanarak sayılabilir hale dönüştürebiliriz.
A piece of furniture
Five pieces of furniture.





WHO:  Defining Relative Clause – İsmi tanımlar ve ara cümle çıkarılırsa cümlenin anlamı bozulur.  Virgül kullanılmaz. Canlıların tanımlanmasında “ilgi zamiri” olarak “who” tercih edilir.

WHİCH/THAT- Cisimler ya da cansız varlıklar için “which” ve “that” yapılarının her ikisi de kullanılır.

WHİCH – Non-defining relative clause à İsmi tanımlamaz. Zaten tanımlanmış olan isimle ilgili ek bilgi verir. Cümlecik aradan çıkartılırsa anlam bozulmaz. Vergilen ek bilgi virgüller ile ayrılır.

Non defining clause’larda “who” ve “which” yerine “that” kullanılamaz.


Whose – İnsan, hayvan, cisim ve olayları tanımlarken kullanabiliriz.

“whose” ardından mutlaka bir isim gerektirir.


Of which/that of

Of whom


Noun+when – refers to time

Noun+where –  refers to place

Reason + why

Reported Speech | Indırect Speech | Dolaylı Aktarım

Reported Speech | Indırect Speech | Dolaylı Aktarım








Modal (can) + V1

could + V1

Gerekli şahıs zamiri değişiklikleri yapılmış (you – I)


Future Tense (will + V1)

would + V1

Şahıs zamirleri değiştirilmiş (you – him)


has +infinitive

had + infinitive

gerekli zarf değişikliği yapılmış (this – that)


to be + going to + V1

(to be)2 + going to + V1

Şahıs zamiri değişimi ( I – she)

zaman zarf değişimi ( to night – that night)


Present Tense (Question)

Past Tense (Question)

what time + S + V3


Present Tense (Command)

Emir cümlesi olduğu için zaman değişikliği yapılmaz



Dolaylı anlatımda özel durumlar hariç verilen cümlenin zamanında değişim yapılır. (Cümlenin yüklemi düz anlatımın bir zaman geçmişinde ifade edilir.)

  1. “I work for this company”, he said à He said he worked for that company.

PRESENT TENSE                                                           PAST TENSE













Düz Anlatım

Dolaylı Anlatım

“ I play football”, he said


He said he played football.


“I’m studying English” she said


She said she was studying English.


“I didn’t do it”, he said


He said he hadn’t done it.


“I was working fort hem”, she said


She said she had been working fort hem.


“I’ll finish it  tonight”, he said.


He said he would finish it to night.

would + V1 (should + V1)

“I’m going to eat fish and chips”, she said

to be +going to + V1

She said she was going to eat fish and chips.

(to be)2 + going to + V1

“I’ve never tasted it”, he said.


He said he had never tasted it.


“I can drive better than you”, she said.

can + V1

She said she could drive better than me.

Could + V1

“It may rain heavily”, he said

may + V1

He said (that) it might rain heavily.

might + V1




  • PAST PERFECT TENSE – Değişime uğramaz. Aynı kalır.

I had already finished this when she came, he said.

He said that he had already finished that when she had come.

  • Emir ve Rica cümlelerinde zaman değişimi yapılmaz.
  • “Please help me”,  She asked .  She asked him to help her.
  • “Don’t touch this book”, he told . He told me not to touch that book.
  • Could – could

Should -should

Would – would

Might – might


I could finish it tomorrow, she said.

She said she could finish it the day after.

  • Eğer aktarma kelimesi “Present Tense” veya “Present Perfect Tense” ise yine cümlenin zamanında değişim yapılmaz.

“I will leave a message, he says /he has said.

He says/has said he’ll leave a message.

  1. 2.      Cümle içinde bulunan zaman ve yer zarfları dolaylı anlatımda değişime uğrar.

“I’ll be here tomorrow”, she said – She said (that) she would be there the following day.

Here – there                               tomorrow – the following day


Düz Anlatım

Dolaylı Anlatım








that day




the day before

the previous day

last week

the week before


the day after

the following day

newt week

the week after




3.Düz anlatımdan dolaylı anlatıma dönüştürdüğümüz cümlelerdeki şahıs zamirlerinin değiğşimine dikkat ediniz.

I can play football better than you, he said – He  said that he could play football better than


4.Soru cümlelerinde dolaylı anlatım:

   a.”What are you doing here?”, he asked – He asked what I was doing there.

        Aktarma kelimesinden sonra soru kelimesi aynen yazılır ve geri kalan kısım bir zaman    geçmişe atılarak düz cümle halinde yazılır.

b.”Did he come yesterday?”, she asked , She asked if he had come the day before.

Aktarma kelimesinden sonra “if” ya da “whether” ifadesi getirilir. Cümle bir zaman geçmişe atılır ve düz cümle haline dönüştürülerek yazılır.